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Post-tensioning theory and practice


Overview
The purpose of this standard is to train the theory and practice of installation of post-tensioning materials and techniques of pre-stressing by post-tensioning.

CITB has developed this standard in discussion with industry

Duration

Minimum 2 days of 6 learning hours per day

Purpose/Scope

The purpose of this standard is to train the theory and practice of installation of post-tensioning materials and techniques of pre-stressing by post-tensioning.

Scope:

Theory:

  • characteristics and limits of concrete, reinforced concrete, pre-stressed concrete, pre-tensioned pre-stressed concrete and post-tensioned pre-stressed concrete.
  • materials and equipment
  • pre-stressing by post-tensioning:
    • difference between internal and external pre-stressing
    • installation of ducts, anchorages, couplers - equipment needed
  • installation of tendons: strand by strand or prefabricated - equipment needed
  • tensioning of tendons – technique and equipment needed
  • temporary and permanent protection of tendons
  • specifications, design code and guidelines, execution standards
  • material and component standards (relevant to PT installation), European Technical Approval Guidelines (ETAG)
  • durability of pre-stressed tendons
  • before and during installation
  • storage and handling of materials (ducts, anchorages, wedges, tensile elements, filling materials and accessories
  • potential problems: ducts and anchorages, cable layout, tensioning
  • procedures, testing, records
  • quality control during installation and during tensioning operations
  • inspection – external, internal, critical points, hold points.

Practical:

  • components: wedges, anchor heads, anchorages and trumpets, ducts, tensile elements
  • strand pushing machines, cable pulling winches, pre-stressing jacks, hydraulic pumps, mixers, mixing units and injection pumps
  • measuring devices, calibrating
  • installation procedures
  • procedures:
    • internal procedures intended for the specialist company
    • external procedures intended for the client or its representative
  • installing ducts, cables and anchorages
  • tensioning
  • filling
  • on-site maintenance of equipment
  • operating anomalies and possible corrective measures
  • quality assurance.

Occupational relevance

Training delivered against this standard would be relevant to the following occupational group(s):

  • operative and craft
  • supervision.

 

Candidate pre-requisites

There are no candidate pre-requisites as part of this standard. However a basic knowledge of concreting terminology and techniques would be beneficial.

Instruction/Supervision

As a minimum, course instructors must be able to demonstrate that, in relation to this standard, they have:

  • a train the trainer or instructional techniques course certificate
  • successfully completed training to this standard
  • at least 5 years relevant industrial experience
  • a verifiable CV.

Delivery

Delivery may be in an on or off the job environment.

All materials and equipment must be of a suitable quality and quantity for candidates to achieve learning outcomes, and must comply with relevant legislation.

The class size and candidate/instructor ratio must allow training to be delivered in a safe manner and enable candidates to achieve the learning outcomes.

The first day will need to be delivered in a classroom.

The second day will need to be delivered on-site.

The two days do not need to be run consecutively, but should not be more than 1 month apart. The theory element must be completed before the practical.

This standard is considered to contain 51% or more practical learning.

Assessment

For the successful completion of training, candidates must complete an end of course practical assessment and knowledge test that measures the learning outcomes and has a pass or fail criteria.

Quality assurance

Quality assurance against this standard will require initial approval of the training organisation and their content mapped to the standard.

CITB will also conduct an approval intervention, either desk-based or centre visit, to ensure the training organisation can meet the requirements of the training standard. Approved training organisations (ATOs) will be required to present information on records of training and assessment upon request to CITB for desk based analysis. They will also be visited annually by the CITB quality assurance team.

Renewal

Recommended refreshment – Health & Safety Executive (HSE), other relevant codes of practice or industry card scheme criteria recommend that the candidate completes a refresher of his/her training (i.e. to ensure their knowledge and/or skills are up to date) every 5 years.

Approval date

November 2018

Review cycle

Either on request or 3 years from approval date.

Learning outcomes

Learning outcomes

The candidate will be able to:

Additional guidance to support learning outcome

Describe features and limits of different material forms

Concrete, reinforced concrete, pre-stressed concrete, pre-tensioned pre-stressed concrete and post-tensioned pre-stressed concrete

Use post-tensioning components

Components: wedges, anchor heads, anchorages and trumpets, ducts, tensile elements

Use post-tensioning machinery

Strand pushing machines, cable pulling winches, Pre-stressing jacks, hydraulic pumps, mixers, mixing units and injection pumps
Pre-stressing by post-tensioning: explain the difference between internal and external pre-stressing  
Describe the equipment needed e.g. installation of ducts, anchorages, couplers
Install tendons: strand by strand or prefabricated
Tension tendons Technique and equipment needed – detail temporary and permanent protection of tendons
Describe specifications, design code and guidelines, execution standards Material and component standards (relevant to installation), ETAG(S)
Describe the durability of pre-stressed tendons  

Store and handle materials

Ducts, anchorages, wedges, tensile elements, filling materials and accessories
Document procedures, testing, records  
Describe potential problems Ducts and anchorages, cable layout, tensioning
Control quality during installation and during tensioning operations  
Conduct inspection External, internal, critical points, hold points
Use and calibrate measuring devices  
Install PT equipment following procedures

Two types of procedures are generally available:

  • internal procedures intended for the PT specialist company
  • external procedures intended for the client or their representative.
Install ducts, cables and anchorages  
Carry out tensioning to specification  
Carry out filling to specification  
Maintain equipment on-site  
Describe operating anomalies and suggest possible corrective measures  

Additional information

UK Certification Authority for Reinforcing Steels (CARES)

Health & Safety Executive (HSE) guides

Health & Safety at Work etc Act 1974
Health and safety in construction
Personal protective equipment a brief guide
PPE
PUWER
COSHH
RIDDOR
LOLER
CDM
Manual handling
Noise
Hand-arm vibration
Electrical

Legislation

http://www.legislation.gov.uk/
Health and Safety at Work etc Act (HSWA) 1974
The Work at Height Regulations (WHR) 2005
Work at Height (Amended) 2007
Personal Protection Equipment (PPE) Regulations 2002
Personal Protection Equipment (PPE) at Work Regulations 1992
Provision and Use of Work Equipment Regulations (PUWER) (1998 UK 1999 NI)
Control of Substances Hazardous to Health Regulations (COSHH )2002
Lifting Operations and Lifting Equipment Regulations (LOLER) 1998
Reporting of Injuries, Diseases and Dangerous Occurrences Regulations (RIDDOR ) 1995
Construction (Design and Management) Regulations (CDM) 2015
Construction (Health, Safety and Welfare) Regulations 1996
Manual Handling Operations Regulations 1992 as amended 2002
Control of Noise at Work Regulations 2005
Control of Vibration at Work Regulations 2005.

Grants

Find out how to claim a grant for short duration training courses

ATO course accreditation

Find out how to accredit a training course to a standard.

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