Site erection of structural timber frames

This intermediate level standard provides the learner with the information and skills to safely erect a simple oak frame structure.

CITB has developed this standard in discussion with industry


Minimum 3 days of 6 learning hours


This training standard will provide the attendee with the information and skills to safely erect a simple oak frame structure.

The scope of this standard covers:

  • personal protective equipment (PPE)
  • respiratory protective equipment (RPE)
  • timber delivery
  • method statements
  • risk assessments
  • lifting plans
  • prepare loads
  • load and unload timber
  • organise materials
  • site inductions
  • setting out
  • access
  • cranes and lifting equipment
  • erection of frames
  • pre-assembly of frames
  • fix frames
  • testing
  • waste management

Occupational relevance

Training delivered against this standard would be relevant to the following occupational groups:

  • operative and craft

Candidate pre-requisites

It is expected that the candidate will be employed within the oak frame industry or have significant relevant carpentry experience.


As a minimum, course instructors must be able to demonstrate that, in relation to this standard, they have:

  • a train the trainer or instructional techniques course certificate
  • successfully completed training to this standard
  • at least 10 years relevant industrial experience
  • a verifiable CV


Delivery may be in an on or off the job environment.

All materials and equipment must be of a suitable quality and quantity for candidates to achieve learning outcomes, and must comply with relevant legislation.

The class size and candidate/instructor ratio must allow training to be delivered in a safe manner and enable candidates to achieve the learning outcomes.

The following delivery methods may/may not be used in the delivery of this standard:

  • classroom
  • workshop

This standard is considered to contain 51 per cent or more practical learning.

This standard is considered to be set at an intermediate level.


For the successful completion of training, candidates must complete an end of course practical assessment and knowledge test that measures the learning outcomes and has a pass or fail criteria.

Quality assurance

Quality assurance against this standard will require initial approval of the training organisation and their content mapped to the standard. 

CITB will also conduct an approval intervention, either desk-based or centre visit, to ensure the training organisation can meet the requirements of the Training Standard. 

Approved training organisations will be required to present information on records of training and assessment upon request to CITB for desk based analysis. They will also be visited annually by the CITB quality assurance team.


There is no mandatory renewal or recommended refreshment requirements for this standard.

Approval date

April 2019

Review cycle

Either on request or in 3 year(s) from approval date.

Learning outcomes

The candidate will be able to: Additional guidance to support learning outcome

Select, fit and use the appropriate Personal Protective Equipment (PPE), store, maintain and report defects in training and work equipment.

Will be able to Identify the correct PPE and understand storage, maintenance and employer damage reporting procedures for:

  • safety footwear
  • safety gloves
  • safety eyewear
  • RPE/dust masks
  • knee protectors
  • hearing protectors
  • hard hats
  • high visibility clothing

Be familiar with Provision and Use of Work Equipment Regulations (PUWER) regulations, workshop hazard identification, safe working conditions.

Load up timbers onto delivery vehicle to be transferred to site

Describe how to:

  • assess correct type and size of vehicle,
  • estimate weight of timber
  • explain access requirements to site
  • safely use forklifts and other appropriate lifting equipment
  • use safe manual handling techniques,
  • ensure even loading of timbers
  • assess the correct use of straps/ropes to secure load
  • work safely at heights while loading onto transport

Read and use site method statements, risk assessments and lifting plans 

Explain the purpose and relevance of site specific paperwork and comply with the requirements.

Prepare and load site equipment

Explain how to:

  • Estimate correct quantity of pegs/dowels.
  • Prepare correct quantity and type of fixings.
  • Identify correct tools and equipment needed for site.
  • Identify correct PPE as per method statements/risk assessments.
  • Assess suitable packing for tools, equipment and fixings as regards security, weather protection, tools and equipment protection.
  • Use inventory lists.

Unload timber on site

Explain how to:

  • Asses site access.
  • Safely unload timber with banksman signalling and clear communication.
  • Identify site storage.
  • Identify safe landing area for materials on site.
  • Use safe manual handling.
  • Demarcate zone of exclusion for other site personnel.
  • Stack timber safely.
  • Use safe banking and signalling of vehicles on site.

Organise materials and fixings prior to installation

  • Describe the sequence order of assembly and materials requirements for each phase.
  • Identify safe, weatherproof and secure storage of materials and fixings.

Explain the purpose and significance of site induction to identify

  • health & safety responsibilities on site
  • welfare facilities
  • first aid points
  • fire exits and assembly points
  • site specific information
  • reporting of site occurrences/ information/incidents
  • site security


Set out site positions for frame

Explain how to:

  • Use and understand site plans
  • Use measurement and squaring techniques including rule of Pythagoras
  • Use site levelling equipment to check levels including laser, water level, theodolite
  • Identify and correctly install associated building elements such as damp proof course (DPC), weather sealing products according to site drawings.

Use access provisions and work at heights.

Explain how to:

  • Use and check scaffolding access
  • Use harnesses and work positioning equipment
  • Use fall arrest nets, bags

Use cranes and other lifting equipment and accessories

Describe how to safely sling loads, signal cranes and work to a lifting plan.

Manually erect frames

Explain how to manually erect frames using the following:

  • Manual rigging techniques with gin poles, shear legs, block and tackle.
  • Use of mechanical materials lifts.
  • Safe manual handling techniques.
  • Judging appropriate weight for manual handling.
  • Using safe access routes for transporting timbers on site.

Pre-assemble frame elements.

Understand the procedures for pre-assembly of frame elements:

  • In a flat framing area.
  • In a suitable location for lifting/access.
  • Explain the relevance of weight and radius of lift.
  • Describe the potential requirement for temporary reinforcements to pre-assembled element for safe lifting.
  • Use of shoring timbers with acrow props, tie straps for temporary support to frame elements once in position.
  • Use of steel framing pins/podgers to secure.

Fix frame elements together.

Explain the correct use of pegs/dowels and other fixings to include;

  • nails
  • timberlok screws,
  • coachscrews,etc.
  • through-bolts
  • gibbs and cotters

Describe how to make an appropriate choice of fixing type. 

Explain what affects position and usage of fixing.

Test erected elements for plumb and position.

Use drawings and equipment to check accurate position and alignment including;

  • water level
  • laser level
  • measuring tape and/or laser device

Clear up and perform waste management.

Describe responsibilities as regards disposal or removal of waste products including timber offcuts, peg ends, packing and strapping material etc.

Additional information

Recommended reading:


FRAMING ROOFS – The best of Fine Homebuilding

BARNS OF RURAL BRITAIN –Graham Hughes ISBN 0-906969-36-0

TIMBER FRAME – Ted Benson ISBN 1-56158-281-6

TIMBER FRAMED BUILDINGS – John Bailey Bed Bucks and Cam Historic Building Research Group